Why Are German Clubs So Damned Good At Shooting?

There’s a stat I’ve looked at before that I’ve dubbed SoTPAR which stands for Shots on Target versus Par. You can find my original article about it from January here. Anyway, I started doing research today to revisit it now that the season is done. I’ll have a much larger article or two on its use and implications in the coming days, but for the moment I wanted to make a quick post on what’s happening in the Bundesliga right now.

This is the sort for the English Premier League. Delta is how many more shots on target each team averages above the 3 year average for their leagues. As you can see, Manchester United are really good at putting shots on target, while QPR were truly dreadful (and were last season too).  Anyway, the EPL 3-year average for this was 32.5%, so that’s how I calculated the expected.


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Serie A Attacking Transfer Targets – The Final Edition

I have too many guys I need to cover today for the usual preamble, at least two of whom were added by request. If you missed the first edition of Serie A analysis, you can find it here.

Now let’s get to it.

Name: Mauro Icardi
Team: Sampdoria (now owned by Inter Milan)
Age: 20
Position: Forward (Centre)
Potential Buyers: SOLD!

For the most part, this series has focused on players whose stats suggest they are future superstars, and who might be available for transfers. Mauro Icardi just transferred to Inter Milan, but a reader asked me to take a look at him, and who am I to deny that?

Year Apps G A ShpG KP Drib Disp Trn PS% NPG/90 Sot%
2013 24(7) 10 2 1.6 0.6 0.5 1.1 1 66.2 0.43 41

Note: An explanation for all the abbreviations is found at the end of this article

When I looked at the stats initially, Icardi was on the bubble as a player the model might be interested in. Only 10 goals isn’t an amazing return from an entire season, but that NPG rate is exceptional for a 20-year-old.  I’m also impressed by his Shots on Target stats. Sampdoria weren’t very good last season, but Icardi made the best of the service he got.

Solid at 20, how good will Icardi be in 5 years?

Solid at 20, how good will Icardi be in 5 years?

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5 Defensive Prospects from La Liga

This is a Guest Post by BallNotABomb

Ted has already done a good job of having a look at those players that have done well, but may be not got the credit for it that they should have on the offensive side of the ball. This is going to be an attempt to do the same for defensive players.

Name: Carlos Martinez

Team: Real Sociedad
Age: 27
Position: Right Back
Potential Buyers: Arsenal, Bayer Leverkusen

Everyone by now has probably heard and maybe seen some of Real Sociedad’s incredible over achievement in the league this season, which culminated in a fourth place finish and a spot in next year’s Champions’ League. Carlos Martinez has as much to do with Sociedad’s good season as any. Having been there all of his career, starting in 2004, he probably has more to do with their success than anyone. However, this could also add a few pennies on to his asking price. Continue reading

Brief Notes on Forward Evaluation and Metrics

Football analysis is in a crazy time right now in that so many things are brand spanking new to the sport that things are changing week by week. I’ve only been working on player stats for about a month and have already changed my approach a couple of times after working through various problems.  At some point in the future, I’ll probably write and re-write a best practices piece on what I’ve discovered doing player analysis, but today I just wanted to cover two really big things for anyone else that is interested in doing this.

Use Non-Penalty Goals
This is the big one for forwards because it levels the playing field and focuses on what really matters.

Penalties are converted at a standard 75-80% clip. Yes, there are some guys like Mario Balotelli or Matt LeTissier who are absurd at taking them and add to the rate, but the point here is that this is a very basic skill that many players have. It is also a different skill to goal scoring from open play, just as free kick taking is a special skill in and of itself. Each club likely has four guys on the pitch at any one time who can convert penalties at the standard rate, so why would you give any extra benefit to the forward who does the converting? If a defender is your penalty taker, and he scores 10 goals a season from the spot, but zero from anywhere else, does that make him good at scoring goals?

Put this another way. AC Milan win an absurd amount of penalties in Serie A every season. (Historically, their rate is a bit crazy. Berlusconi couldn’t inflate the Euro, but he’s done numbers for Milan’s ref bias.) Mario Balotelli had 12 goals in 13 matches in Milan, an incredible rate.


Six of those goals were penalties. In numbers we actually care about, Balotelli had six goals in 13 matches after his move to Milan. This number, though impressive, isn’t quite as staggering as 12.

Assume for a moment Rooney and Robin van Persie convert spot kicks at the same rate.  Van Persie is the penalty taker at United and converts 8 penalties to Rooney’s 0 over the course of the season. Meanwhile Rooney scores 20 open play or free kick goals and RVP scores 12. At the end of the year, they both have 20 goals. However, Rooney’s 20 would have been far harder to achieve and more valuable than RVP’s penalty-aided 20.

I understand some people care about penalty takers in terms of having a leadership or mental strength characteristic, and that’s fine. You can just tick a box on the player evaluation form that says “Takes Penalties” and be done with it. In terms of statistical analysis, you really want to filter out the penalty goals from the much harder earned goals that come via the rest of the game.

Benjamin Pugsley is the first one I saw start to slice data in this way for forwards, and deserves a lot of credit for making me aware of its importance.

Per 90
This one is fairly intuitive once you see it, but not everyone notices it at first. All “rate” stats like tackles, passes taken, completed, goals, assists, key passes, interception – basically anything that is just counted – should not be done on a Per Game basis, but instead should be done at Per 90.

The reason for this is simple: 8 out of the 11 guys in every match play 90 minutes. Thus 90 is the standard unit for football activity. That said, some players get subbed regularly, and some (especially younger players) often appear mostly as subs. How do you normalize their contributions? By dividing those contributions into 90 minute segments.

This isn’t groundbreaking – nearly every sport that is being analysed in this day and age has some sort of time normalization to help compare players. Per 90 is the correct way to do it for football/soccer.

5 Attacking Prospects from Serie A You Need to Know

more_ss_moneyballWe’re in the home stretch on the attacking transfer dossiers, with Serie A the last major league I am expecting to cover this summer*.  For those who are new to this series, the point is to try and unearth interesting and valuable players that are probably not household names… yet. And the conceit is that I try and do it via statistical analysis, as opposed to listening to expert opinion, or just following along with what the media says.

As of this past weekend, noted expert and Match of the Day pundit Mark Lawrenson hadn’t even seen Isco play. That sort of stance on young players isn’t just avant garde, it’s bleeding edge. It takes a special kind of expert to say, “Fah, so what if he’s been in the Champions’ League. I only care when he starts playing in the Premier League.” There will be none of that here, let me assure you.

If you are interested in the earlier dossiers, you can find Germany here, France part 1 and part 2, and Spain part 1 and part 2.

*Unless someone decides to ship me a raft of data from any other Euro countries, in which case I will happily continue the journey of the S.S. Moneyball.

The Quirks of Serie A
I have mentioned that Serie A is a bit of a statistical anomaly both on Twitter and in slightly longer form. Most of Serie A’s leaders in Key Passes for the last two seasons were 29 or older, so I had some concern that the league might be a wasteland for young talent that we would be interested in.  It turns out I needn’t have worried – Serie A is packed with some younger studs, provided you know where to look.

Let’s start with the most talked-about young transfer target of the summer.

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How to Spend No More Than £4.2M Per Player and Win

There is a team that teetered on the brink of bankruptcy in 2005. A payment from one of their biggest historic rivals helped save the club from administration.

In 2008, they finished 13th in the league.

In 2011, they won the league.

In 2012, they won the league again.

That is a fairly impressive rebuilding effort, regardless of what league you are in. Three years from 13th to league winners seems nearly impossible in modern football unless you spend like a sheikh, right?

Their highest transfer fee during the rebuilding period was £4.2M.

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Serie A is Weird and MLS is Another Planet

I like to mess around with data. If you’ve been reading this blog for any time at all, you can see that is true. Since I’ve been doing player analytics, I started looking at different statistical profiles of the European leagues to analyze whether they are truly comparable, and on the whole they match up pretty well. The stats in one league look approximately the same as those in other leagues.

This is good, because it lets you shop across leagues for interesting players to recruit and have some comfort that they will be playing the same game, and probably produce a similar statistical performance.

That said…

Serie A is weird. It has a lot of strange statistical wrinkles that just don’t quite line up with what you expect in the rest of the leagues. Take the Interceptions stat, for example. The numbers produced for Ints in Serie A look similar to what you see in other leagues, but look at the difference in positions for who intercepts the ball the most. Continue reading